APA style is a format for academic documents such as journal articles and books. It is codified in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The APA states that the guidelines were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and for "word choice that best reduces bias in language". APA style is widely used, either entirely or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals (including medical and other public health journals), in many textbooks, and in academia (for papers written in classes). The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in July 2009 after four years of development.
APA Examples: Books and eBooks
|Book: Single author
||Pegrum, M. (2009). From blogs to bombs: The future of electronic technologies in education. Crawley, WA: UWA Publishing.
|Book: Two authors
||(Page & Stritzke, 2015) But when outside parenthesis: Page and Stritzke (2015) suggested that ...
||Page, A. C., & Stritzke, W. G. K. (2015). Clinical psychology for trainees: Foundations of science-informed practice (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
|Book: 3–5 authors
||First citation: (Ranzijn, McConnochie, & Nolan, 2009) Subsequent citations: (Ranzijn et al., 2009)
||Ranzijn, R., McConnochie, K., & Nolan, W. (2009). Psychology and indigenous Australians: Foundations of cultural competence. South Yarra, Vic: Palgrave Macmillan.
|Book: 6–7 authors
||(Wolfe et al., 2015)
||Wolfe, J. M., Kluender, K. R., Dennis, L. M., Bartoshuk, L. M., Herz, R. S., Lederman, S. J., & Merfeld, D. M. (2015). Sensation & perception (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
APA Examples: Conference Proceedings and Papers
|Paper in conference proceedings in print
||Game, A. (2001). Creative ways of being. In J. R. Morss, N. Stephenson & J. F. H. V. Rappard (Eds.), Theoretical issues in psychology: Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology 1999 Conference (pp. 3–12). Sydney: Springer.
|Paper in conference proceedings online: Electronic database
||Balakrishnan, R. (2006, March). Why aren't we using 3D user interfaces, and will we ever? Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces. https://doi.org/10.1109/vr.2006.148
APA Examples: Journal Articles
|Journal article in print: 8 or more authors
||(Sohrabi et al., 2011)
Sohrabi, H. R., Weinborn, M., Badcock, J., Bates, K. A., Clarnette, R., Trivedi, D., … Martins, R. N. (2011). New lexicon and criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurology, 10(4), 299–300.
Complete author list: Sohrabi, H. R., Weinborn, M., Badcock, J. Bates, K. A., Clarnette, R., Trivedi, D., Verdile, G., Sutton, T., Lenzo, N. P., Gandy, S. E., Martins, R. N.
|Journal article online: With direct quotation or paraphrase
||(Gagné et al., 2015, p. 185) Or Gagné et al. (2015) reported that “Results showed that the MWMS had an invariant configuration in the three languages” (p. 185), ...
Gagné, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Crevier-Braud, L., van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., . . . Westbye, C. (2015). The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale: Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 178–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2013.877892
When paraphrasing text include page number/s in the in-text citation but do not use quotation marks. There is a right and a wrong way to paraphrase – see the Study Smarter guide at http://www.student.uwa.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/1861319/R4-Paraphrasing.pdf
|Journal article online: Digital Object Identifier supplied
||First citation: (Almeida, Dickinson, Maybery, Badcock, & Badcock, 2010) Subsequent citations: (Almeida et al., 2010)
Almeida, R. A., Dickinson, J., Maybery, M. T., Badcock, J. C., & Badcock, D. R. (2010). Visual search performance in the autism spectrum ii: The radial frequency search task with additional segmentation cues. Neuropsychologia, 48(14), 4117–4124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.10.009
APA Examples: Newspapers and Magazines
|Newspaper article in print
||Hatch, B. (2006, July 13). Smoke lingers for those who keep hospitality flowing. Australian Financial Review, p. 14.
|Newspaper article: No author
||Use first few words of article title in quotation marks ("Comstock drill plans", 2009)
||Comstock drill plans reined in. (2009, January 9). Upstream: The International Oil and Gas Newspaper. p. 20.
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