Comparative Study of Realistic Optimism between India and Japan University Students


Author: Aneesah Nishaat, Soka University, Japan
Published: August 12, 2022

Citation: Nishaat, A. (2022). Comparative Study of Realistic Optimism between India and Japan University Students, 8(1).


This study aimed to determine the differences in realistic optimism between Indian and Japanese university students using the realistic optimism scale. Indian students (n = 361; 193 males and 168 females) and Japanese students (n = 390; 172 males and 218 females) participated in the questionnaire survey. A t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the realistic optimism between the two participant groups. The results of the t-test indicated significant differences between Indian and Japanese students regarding realistic optimism, with Indian students scoring higher in the flexibility and future orientation dimensions. No significant difference was observed in the will/courage dimension. The ANOVA results showed a significant difference between India’s and Japan’s male and female students regarding future orientation and flexibility. However, no significant difference was found in terms of will/courage between Indian and Japanese male students and between Indian and Japanese female students. The results also revealed that Indian students, male and female, scored higher on overall realistic optimism than Japanese male and female students. The findings are discussed in the context of cross-cultural studies. Indian students scored higher in flexibility resulting from a multicultural society that requires them to understand each other and be flexible. Indian students’ higher scores in future orientation refer to a strong desire to realize their goals and dreams.


comparative study, India, Japan, realistic optimism