Publication Ethics

Ethics Statement

IAFOR aims to ensure that best practice and ethical standards are maintained by journal editors, authors and reviewers. IAFOR editors and reviewers are required to assess manuscripts fairly and maintain confidentiality. Authors must ensure that research submitted to IAFOR journals is their own original work and is not under consideration or accepted for publication elsewhere.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Editors and editorial board members/reviewers will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained by editors as a result of handling the manuscript will be kept confidential and not used for their personal advantage. Editors will recuse themselves from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions connected to the papers. In the event that this kind of conflict arises, they will ask another member of the editorial board to handle the manuscript.

Authors too must disclose any conflicts of interest that could be considered as influencing the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. This information should be provided on submission.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

Duties of Authors

Plagiarism is an affront to the established tenets of academic research. The submitted text should be entirely original, apart from the properly acknowledged use of other authors’ work for citation purposes, and not have already appeared in another publication except with the written consent of all parties. (Papers translated into English for the first time may fall into this category.) Submitting an identical or very similar paper simultaneously to multiple journals is unethical. All sources should be cited in accordance with internationally accepted norms of fair use. Any images included in the paper must be out of copyright or used with the express written permission of the copyright holder. While the Editor will make all reasonable efforts to publish the paper to the highest standards, the author of the paper is solely responsible for his or her content, including any errors or omissions, and for any issues such as libel that might arise from the publication of their work in the journal.

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Plagiarism Screening

Manuscripts are checked with anti-plagiarism software (iThenticate). However, while the Editor makes reasonable efforts to determine the academic integrity of papers published in the journal, ultimate responsibility for the originality of submitted manuscripts thus lies with the author. If it comes to light that plagiarism is suspected in a published article, the journal adheres to guidelines from the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).

Duties of the Editorial Board

The Editor of the journal is primarily responsible for working with a prospective author to produce a good-quality paper that meets international academic standards in terms of content, style and citation. The final decision regarding the publication or otherwise of a submitted paper lies entirely with the Editor, and he or she reserves the right to exclude a paper for any reason prior to publication, notwithstanding assurances of publication given prior to this, if the said publication is seen as potentially prejudicial to the reputation of the journal. Manuscripts shall be assessed solely on the basis of their intellectual content in relation to the context of the particular journal issue. Each issue is different and has its own priorities, to be determined exclusively by the Editor. The Editor and editorial staff shall exhibit care in the treatment of submitted manuscripts and related information, and in general not disclose information to outside parties. Peer review shall generally be conducted "blind", with both author and reviewer unaware of each other’s identity.

Duties of Reviewers

Reviewers shall review the paper in a timely fashion and to the best of their academic ability, offering constructive feedback about issues regarding content and form. Personal criticism
should be avoided. Opinions should be supported with clear arguments and examples and be as specific as possible. Reviewers should make an effort to confirm that the paper contains sufficient and accurate citation of relevant sources, whether mentioned or otherwise. Reviewers who feel they have a conflict of interest should inform the Editor and be replaced.