Intercultural Communication: The Perceptions of Lebanese High School Directors

Najwa Saba ‘Ayon, Rafik Hariri University, Lebanon
Farah Sabbah, Independent Researcher
Mira M. Alameddine, Rafik Hariri University, Lebanon
Published: June 1, 2024

Citation: Saba ‘Ayon, N., Sabbah, F., & Alameddine, M. M. (2024). Intercultural Communication: The Perceptions of Lebanese High School Directors. IAFOR Journal of Education12(1).


Because intercultural communication has become one of the most demanded skills in the current digitalized world, many educational institutions aspire to graduate students who possess intercultural skills and are able to successfully communicate with people from diverse cultures. However, intercultural communication has not received much attention in the Lebanese context, especially in schools. To this end, this paper examines the Lebanese high school directors’ perceptions of intercultural communication. As pragmatists, the researchers employed quantitative and qualitative methods to better understand the problem under investigation. Using a snowball sampling, they surveyed the perceptions of 55 Lebanese directors in private and public high schools and interviewed two informants in the Center for Educational Research and Development. The collected data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Then, the derived conclusions were compared to ensure trustworthiness of the findings. Major findings showed that though intercultural communication is a learning outcome in most schools, it is mostly taught at the knowledge level in the foreign language classrooms. Assessment of this outcome is neither systematic nor consistent. It was also shown that directors in private schools tend to be more informed than those in the public sector. Recommendations are made for enhancing intercultural communication skills in Lebanese educational institutions.


cultural diversity, curriculum design, intercultural communication, intercultural competence, Lebanon, schools